|Mitosporic fungus. Hyphomycetes. Teleomorphs (sexual state): Mycosphaerella, Venturia (Ascomycetes).|
|Distribution||Where Found||Mode of Dissemination|
Approx. 28-40 species. One of the most common genera, worldwide.
|Soil of many different types, plant litter, plant pathogen, leaf surfaces, old or decayed plants.||Dry spore (formed in very fragile chains, easily dispersed).
|Allergen||Potential Opportunist or Pathogen||Potential Toxin Production|
|Common and important allergen.
Type I allergies (hay fever, asthma).
Type III hypersensitivity pneumonitis: Hot tub lung, Moldy wall hypersensitivity.
|Generally, non-pathogenic. One species, Cladosporium carrionii, is an agent of chromoblastomycosis in subtropical and tropical regions (grows at 35-37°C).||Cladosporin, emodin.
(Neither are highly toxic.)
|Growth Indoors||Industrial Uses||Other Comments|
|Widespread, on many substrates, including textiles, wood, moist window sills. Grows at 0°C, and so is associated with refrigerated foods.
Aw=0.85-0.88 (minimum for various species).
|C. herbarum produces enzymes which are used in the transformation of steroid intermediates such as pregnenolone and progesterone, biologically important hormones used in the industrial production of oral contraceptives.||G.S. deHoog & J. Guarro have placed species associated with human infection in a new genus Cladophialophora, i.e. Cladophialophora carrionii, C. bantiana. Older medical texts refer to this fungus by its former name Hormodendron species.|
|Characteristics: Growth/Culture||Notes on Spore Trap Recognition||Notes on Tape Lift Recognition|
|Grows on all general fungal media. Some species sporulate better than others, and some may need cycles of light in order to produce spores.||Distinctive, with wide variation in size and shape. Spores with dark attachment scars and some olive to brown pigmentation are identified as Cladosporium.||Distinctive, readily identifiable on tape lifts.|
|Definitions | References | Commentary|