|Exophiala species are common, and are closely related to Wangiella and Phialophora. On primary isolation, this genus may exhibit a black yeast phase, making identification a little more complex. Health effects include occasional mycetomas, chromoblastomycosis, and other subcutaneous lesions. No information is available regarding toxicity. Allergenicity has not been studied. May be identified on surfaces by tape lifts, tease mounts from bulk samples, and in air by culturable (Andersen) sampling. (Spores do not have distinctive morphology and would be categorized as "other colorless" on spore trap samples.) Widespread distribution in decaying wood, soil, and water (especially surfaces in contact with cool, fresh water).