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June 2004

Volume 2 | Issue 5


I hope you are all doing well and will enjoy the article from Dr. Burge about wood decay fungi and the article from Dr. Fallah about the Ceratocystis/Ophiostoma group, also knows as "Lumber mold."

Please let us know if you have any questions or comments or if you have any other topics you'd like us to discuss, contact us at:

With warmest wishes,

Dave Gallup

Wood Decaying Fungi  – An Insight on Types and Roles in Wood Decay

Fungi can grow on almost any surface provided there is a source of nutrient present.  All fungi require glucose for energy.  This simple sugar is usually present in the environment in complex molecules that must be digested before the glucose becomes available for use in producing energy in the fungus.  Nutrient sources (food) for some fungi must contain simple sugars or starches that are easily digested.  Other fungi produce enzymes that allow the digestion of more complex sugar sources.  These complex sugar sources include cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin.  In order to cause wood rot, a fungus must be able to degrade one or more of these compounds. 

There are three major types of fungal induced wood decay:  soft rot, white rot, and brown rot.  The fungi producing these rots can produce airborne spores and influence air quality.  However, they are primarily of concern because of their capacity to destroy the structural integrity of wood. 

The soft rot fungi can degrade all three of the structural wood components, although the major food sources are cellulose and hemicellulose.  A wide variety of fungi can cause soft rot, including the ubiquitous Chaetomium.  For soft rot to occur, liquid water must be continuously present.  Wood with soft rot is spongy.  The most common sites for soft rot in buildings are wooden windowsills, and areas where roof drips continually wet wood materials. 

The white rot fungi degrade primarily lignin.  These fungi remove the lignin and leave the white cellulose.  Wood that has been decayed by a white rot fungus is whitish, and stringy.  Most of the fungi that cause white rot are Basidiomycetes and Phellinus (one of the Basidiomycetes) is a common white rot fungus.  While the white rot fungi may form rhizoid-like strands, they are usually fine and fragile.  Phellinus produces flat fruiting bodies on the surface of colonized wood, and can release basidiospores into the occupied space. 

Brown rot fungi degrade only the cellulose in wood.  In the process they modify the lignin, but do not use it for food.  The rotted wood is brownish and both longitudinal and transverse cracks appear, giving the wood a cubed appearance.  Only a few fungi can produce brown rot, and all are Basidiomycetes.  Coniophora is a brown rot fungus that produces spore-bearing structures flat on the surface of continuously damp wood.  This rot usually occurs on wood in contact with damp soil or other continuous water sources.  Control of wet brown rot involves removing all of the rotted wood, and controlling the water source before the wood is replaced. 

Some brown rot fungi cause what is incorrectly termed “dry rot”.  Poria incrassata and Merulius lacrymans are two Basidiomycetes that cause dry rot.  These fungi form resistant rhizoids that can transport water for long distances.  These can often be seen on wood surfaces as root-like strands that are somewhat rubbery when moist.  If brown rot appears in a place where no obvious sources of water can be found, it is useful to test the wood’s moisture content, and if moisture content is high, then try to trace the fungus to the moisture source.  Control of dry rot involves removing all of the rotted wood, and interrupting the source of water on which the fungi depend.

Other fungi will grow on wood, but generally do not cause structural damage.  The sap stain fungi, for example, grow in the sugary sap of living trees or cut lumber.  They may cause discoloration of the wood, but do not cause any other damage.  While possibly unattractive, these fungi do not present an air quality concern, nor do they lead to rot.  Many fungi will use wood exudates (sap) for food, since this is a source for soluble sugar.  Also the common molds will grow on the surface of wood, possibly causing discoloration and affecting air quality, but not damaging the wood itself.  These fungi can be removed from surfaces, and as long as water does not remain, will not return. 

White and brown rot fungi can form fruiting bodies on the surface of colonized wood, and can produce massive numbers of basidiospores.  If basidiospores are higher indoors than out on air samples, the possibility of wood rot should be considered, and the type of basidiospores explored more carefully.

In summary: 

  1. If windowsills or other continuously wet wood is spongy, suspect wood rot. 
  2. If wood is white and stringy, suspect white rot. 
  3. If wood is brown, crumbly, and cracked, suspect brown rot.
  4. If no obvious water source is present, suspect dry (brown) rot.
  5. If fungal growth is superficial and can easily be wiped away, suspect common mold.
  6. If basidiospore concentrations are unusually high indoors consider the possibility of white or brown rot somewhere in the space.


Identification Manual for Fungi from Utility Poles in the United States, Edited by C.J.K. Wang, and R.A. Zabel. 1990. ATCC, 12301 Parklawn Drive, Rockville, Maryland 20852.

Micro-Morphological Studies of Soft Rot Fungi in Wood, A.S. Zainal. 1975. Strauss & Cramer GmbH, 6845 Hirschberg, Germany.

Microorganisms in Home and Indoor Work Environments, Edited by Brian Flannigan, Robert A. Samson, and J. David Miller. 2001. Taylor and Francis Inc., 29 West 35th Street, New York, NY 100001.

Fungi of the month (II):  Lumberyard molds- Ceratocystis /Ophiostoma (C/O) group:

Dr. Payam Fallah, Dr. Kamash Ramanathan


The ascomycete genera Ceratocystis and Ophiostoma include numerous species that can appear on both angiosperm and conifer woods.  Each genus is distinct and contains many species of its own.  The reason we lump the two genera together in a group is due to the extreme morphological similarities that exist between the two genera.  While many species are considered plant pathogens, few species, such as C. coerulescens, C. piliferum, and C. virescens, merely cause dark discolorations of the wood, known as sapstain or blue stain.  Because of this discoloration, the lumber becomes less visually appealing.  Importantly, there are no reports indicating that the group causes structural damage.

The C/O group can be found on almost any kind of lumber, especially pine, and it may have been there long before the lumber was brought to the lumberyard.  The dark coloration on wood can often be mistaken with that of Stachybotrys species, and consequently cause concern for some individuals.  It is important to note that growth of Stachybotrys species on wood is extremely poor and its occurrence very rare.

The primary source of food for the C/O group is sugar as well as certain carbohydrates found in cells located in the sapwood area of the lumber.  Sapwood basically refers to the area near the bark.  Once the mycelium of the fungi appears on the surface, it may go through the sexual phase, and if environmental conditions (e.g. moisture/ temperature) are suitable, it produces dark microscopic fruiting structures (ascomata) containing numerous ascospores.  Occasionally, we report another fungus with this group, known as Gonatobotryum species.  Gonatobotryum is a mycoparasitic mold (a fungus parasitizing another fungus) that is often found growing on C/O group.  The spores of C/O group can not be identified on spore traps nor can these fungi be cultured easily.  However, the Gonatobotryum spores occasionally can be detected in the air and easily identified on spore traps.  Its presence may strongly suggest that the C/O group may also be present in the vicinity.  The best way to sample for the C/O group is by a tape lift, preferably, or by swabbing the colonized surfaces.  Culturing the C/O group is not necessary.

In general, fungal spores can be disseminated by variety of ways, most commonly by air.  The spores of C/O group, however, have evolved to be disseminated by insects and as a result the spores are produced in a sticky mass on the lumber.  Since the spores are produced in a sticky mass; the airborne exposure potential of C/O group is greatly reduced. Currently the C/O group is not reported to infect humans or animals. A connection between Ophiostoma and the human pathogen Sporothrix schenckii has been proposed but not confirmed.  People should realize that the C/O group is probably present in a very large number, arguably a majority, of wood framed buildings.  It could therefore be inferred that the health risks are very low and the issue, for this group of fungi, is largely cosmetic.


The data and other information contained in this newsletter are provided for informational purposes only and should not be relied upon for any other purpose. Environmental Microbiology Laboratory, Inc. hereby disclaims any liability for any and all direct, indirect, punitive, incidental, special or consequential damages arising out of the use or interpretation of the data or other information contained in, or any actions taken or omitted in reliance upon, this newsletter.

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